In 1956, George Dunning moved from Toronto to England to manage UPA’s new London office. After UPA closed, Dunning hired many of the staff to work for him and his newly established production company, TVC. By 1961, TVC was producing about one hundred commercials a year. Dunning also produced many personal short films noted for their surrealistic atmosphere and Kafkaesque themes. The company is also referred to as as TV Cartoons.